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Topic Review
Emergence delirium: Myth or Reality?


  1. Wells, L.T., Rasch, D.K. et al. Emergence“ Delirium” after sevoflurane anesthesia: a paranoid delusion? Anesth Analg 1999; 88:1308.
  2. de Armendi, A. J. et al. “ Postanesthesia Care Unit.” In: Cote, C.J., Todres, I.D. A Practice of Anesthesia for Infants and Children. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA. W.B.Saunders, 2001.
  3. Cole, J.W. et al. Emergence behavior in children: defining the incidence of excitement and agitation following anaesthesia. Paed Anaesth 2002 12(5): 442-7.
  4. Ecoffey, C. Recovery and outcome after minor pediatric surgery. Minerva Aneshesiologica 2002; 68(5): 392-5.
  5. Cohen, I.T. et al. Rapid emergence does not explain agitation following sevoflurane anaesthesia in infants and children: a comparison with propofol. Paed Anaesth 2003 13: 63-7.
  6. Cravero, J. et al. Emergence agitation in paediatric patients after sevoflurane anaesthesia and no surgery: a comparison with halothane. Paed Anaesth 2000; 10(4): 419-24.
  7. Lerman, J., Davis, P.J. et al. Induction, recovery and safety characteristics of sevoflurane in children undergoing ambulatory surgery: a comparison with halothane. Anesthesiology 1996; 84: 1332-40.
  8. Welborn, L.G., Hannallah, R.S. et al. Comparison of emergence and recovery characteristics of sevoflurane, desflurane, and halothane in pediatric ambulatory patients. Anesth Analg 1996; 83:917-20.
  9. Naito, Y. Tamai, S. et al. Comparison between sevoflurane and halothane for pediatric ambulatory anaesthesia. Br. J. Anaesth 1991l 67:387-9.
  10. Sarner, J.B. Levine, M. et al. Clinical characteristics of sevoflurane in children: a comparison with halothane. Anesthesiology 1995; 82: 38-46.
  11. Greenspun, J.C., Hannallah, R.S., et al. Comparison of sevoflurane and halothane anesthesia in children undergoing outpatient ear, nose, and throat surgery. J Clin Anesth 1995; 7:398-402.
  12. Keaney, A. et al. Postoperative behavioral changes following anesthesia with sevoflurane. Paed Anaesth 2004; 14(10): 866-70.
  13. Przybylo, H.J. et al. Assessing behaviour in children emerging from anaesthesia: can we apply psychiatric diagnostic techniques? Paed Anaesth 2003; 13(7): 609-16.
  14. Sikich, N. et al Development and psychometric evaluation of the pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium scale. Anesthesiology 2004; 100(5): 1138-45.
  15. Davis, P.J., Greenberg, J.A. et al. Recovery characteristics of sevoflurane and halothane in preschool-aged children undergoing bilateral myringotomy and pressure equalization tube insertion. Anesth Analg. 1999;88:34-8.
  16. Cravero, J.P. et al. The effect of small dose fentanyl on the emergence characteristics of pediatric patients after sevoflurane anesthesia without surgery. Anesth Analg 2003; 97: 364-7.
  17. Finkel, J.C. et al. The effect of intranasal fentanyl on the emergence characteristics after sevoflurane anesthesia in children undergoing surgery for bilateral myringotomy tube placement. Anesth Analg 2001; 92: 1164-8.
  18. Kulka, P.J. et al. Clonidine prevents sevoflurane-induced agitation in children. Anesth Analg 2001; 93: 335-8.
  19. Kararmaz, A. et al. Oral ketamine premedication can prevent emergence agitation in children after desflurane anesthesia. Paed Anaesth 2004 14: 477-82.
  20. Fan, K. et al. Influences of tramadol on emergence characteristics from sevoflurane anesthesia in pediatric ambulatory surgery. Kaohsiung J Med Sci 16: 255-260, 2000.
  21. Shukry, M., Mathison, C. et al. Does Dexmedetomidine Prevent Emergence Delirium in Pediatric Patients after Sevoflurane-Based General Anesthesia? Anesthesiology 2004; 101: A1413.
  22. Cohen, I. T. et al. Propofol or midazolam do not reduce the incidence of emergence agitation associated with desflurane anaesthesia in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy. Paed Anaesth 2002 12: 604-9.
  23. Murray, D. et al. Sevoflurane versus halothane: effect of oxycodone premedication on emergence behaviour in children. Paed Anaesth 2002 12:308-12.
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